Date of Purananooru

Various dates are proposed for purananooru, 1000BC, 10,000BC , 1 Million years old etc.
Let us try to find the probable date. This is based on the premise that if  X mentions Y , then X is later than Y.

Purananooru - 378
Purananooru mentions mentions Rama and sita ,so it cannot be more than 4000BC old.
Purananooru mentions mentions Mahabratha war so, it is atleast later than 3000BC

Purananooru - 175
Purananooru mentions mentions Maurya ,so it is later than 175BC atleast.

Dating problem
purananooru mentions Ilamcetcenni stopped Mauryas from coming to south, Silapathikaram mentions Karikal chola who is dated (by most ardent tamil chuvanists) to be in 2nd century AD. So Father-son ruling 500 years apart. which shows that the the poet who composed the poet cannot be dated anywhere near the two dates. so give atleast 200 years to forget the periods , that puts purananooru to 400 AD.

Purananooru 46
Killivalavan was a chola king mentioned in Sangam Literature, and Father of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli , in the Purananuru and Agananuru.The etymology of Killi is kilai (Branch in Tamil)

Killi Valavan
The word Pallava means branch in Sanskrit, denoting that they are a later offshoot  (Kilai-> Branch(tamil)) of Chutus (satkarnis).Pallava is rendered as Tondaiyar in the Tamil language.  The Pallava kings at several places are called Thondamans or Thondaiyarkon. The territory of the Pallavas was known as Tundaka Visaya or Tundaka Rashtra.(tundaka -> Branch) The Sanskrit meaning of Pallava is Kilai The Tamil Thondai means the same,  It shows that Pallavas are descendants (Kilay or Pirivu) of Chutus(satakarnis). Karnata dynasties Chalukyas and Rastrakutas call themselves Vallabhas and  Pallava also from Karnata have called themselves vallabhas in some places, which translates to valavan in Tamil.

If we take the killi ->; Kilai and Pallava ->; kilai and vallabha -> valavan

We have killi valvan and it shows that killi valavan is generic term applied to pallava vallabha.

After the pallavas revenge against pulikesin II,  Ganga king who had marital relations with chalukyas took revenge against pallavas and chased them out of kanchi.  So the pallavas shifted themselves to a place called Kaduvetti, which is now in chola country. Many of their inscriptions are from kaduvetti. Only after this time we see cholas rising.  Cholas might have marital relations with pallavas and  putting killivalavan as one of their ancestors,   shows their ancestors are  pllavas. Until Nirputunga pallava cornation ,they were feudatories of pallavas. This also solves myth Pallavas are not mentioned in Sangam literature-so sangam literature has to be dated before pallavas. So if we take this account then the purananooru has to be dated after pallavas that after 9th century AD.

Karikala, Maurya ,Ramayana and Mahabharata war
There is a karikala known as Aditya Karikala ruling in 9th century AD.  Mauryan kings were ruling until 7th century AD in Konkan.  So the knowledge of Mauryas and Karikalan were fresh.  During 9th century AD to 13th century AD, saw all the dynasties trying to connect themselves to Ramayana and Mahabharata Warriors, not surprising the Purananooru does similar act of connecting the tamil kings to Mahabharata heroes.  Karikala said to have defeated Oliya nagas and according to Mahabalipur Inscription of Rajendra I oliya nagas are of his period( 11th century AD.).  So  Purananooru is defintely 10th century AD  to 11th century AD or later than that.

Here is an inscription belonging to one of the kings of the Irunkovel line from the Adhipuriswara temple in Tiruvorriyur district:
Records in the reign of the Ganga-pallava king Kovijiya Kampavarman, gift of 27 kalanju of gold for offerings by Pudi Arindigai, wife of Videlvidigu-Ilangovelar of Kodumbalur in Ko-nadu. The money was placed in the hands of the residents of Vaikattur, a suburb of Tiruvorriuyur, on interest at 3 manjadi per kalanju per annum 

Kampavarman is dated to 870-900AD ,Irunkovel mentioned in Purananooru , so the date of purananooru has to be later than this date. Interestingly there was a dynastic struggle between Kampavarman(elder) and Nrputunga(boy) for the throne like Nedunkilli and Nalankilli

The dating gets even curious because the Purananooru mentions Pulikatimal (Hoysalas with emblem of Sala killing the Tiger that is Hoysalas ending the chola rule(Tiger Emblem)), who are of  period 10th -14th Century AD . Interestingly it also says pulikatimal is from neighbhouring country. So if we take Hoysalas into  picture, the date has to be after 11th century AD.  Probably between 11th to 13th century AD. After which there was a intergennum because of Muslim invasion.

Related Posts
origin of Cholas
Date of Karikala
Date of Pallava
Myth of Tamil Sangam
Date of Silapathikaram



    # Kapilar refers to Pulikadimal (Irungovel) to whom he offers Pari’s daughters in marriage. Kapilar also records the legends of the rise of agnikula kings from sacrifical fire pit of the northern sage Vashishta in connection with pulikadimal (Puram 201 & 202 ). Kapilar recognizes pulikadimal as malaiman. Each and every inscription of Hoysals call themselves as ‘Maleparol Ganda’ – the kings among mountain kings.
    # The first reference of Agnikula legend appears in Bhavishya Purana – which lists the future events. It should also be noted that Bhavishya Purana text, as avaialble today, is regarded to have later additions, some as late as 1850 CE. The first datable source for legend of agnikula belongs to 1005 CE. Padmagupta writes Navasahasanka-charita during the rule of Parmar Sindhuraj (about 995-1055) of Dhara. He mentions creation of Paramar from Agnikunda by Vashista, for the first time.
    # Paramars were branch of Rashtrkutas. First known Paramara Harsola copper plate dated to 949 C.E mentions Paramara Siyaka as a feudatory of Rashtrakuta Akalavarsha. It mentions the Paramaras as being of the same clan as the Rashtrakutas. Vakpati Munja (975, 986 C.E) assumes Rashtrakuta name Amoghavarsha and titles Srivallabha and Prathvivallabha, indicating that he regarded himself as being a succesor of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. The history of Hoysals (Pulikadimal) in Karnataka overlaps the last phase of Rashtrkutas. Thus the agnikula and pulikadimal legends of foregoing Rastrkutas and emerging hoysals has been picked up by Kapilar.
    # In Kavya in South India: Old Tamil Cankam Poetry, Herman Tieken argues that sangam dates are incorrect, and that the corpus of Sangam literature rather belongs to the ninth or tenth century A.D., when it was written by a poet (or poets) in the Pandyan kingdom who wished to create a classical Tamil tradition to rival that of Sanskrit. The writer(s) of this literature, he argues, used old names and old history to accomplish their deception, which was extraordinarily successful. George Hart ardent supporter of Tamil literature has criticized Tiekens hypothesis. But if we look deep into sangam literature , analyse them analytically such as agnikula legends, pulikadimal , resemblance conflict between Nedun Killi & Nalan Killi with Kampavarman & Nrupatunga , failure to establish Kalabhra interruption , problem with tamil brahmi etc., there might be some hidden truths inside as Tieken indicated.

  2. Shri Shankarappa
    Malaiyamans are Hoysalas, I have lot of evidences. May be I will write a article on that. Meanwhile you can see

    Naccinarkkiniyar says that the kurinjipattu was composed by kabilar for teaching the principles of Aryan king pirahattan who was ruling the Hilly region. This is one more reference to Hoysalas. In Malaipadukadam the author describes that the hilly region grew ragi(Hassan area). He also tells about Kurubha dance in this area.

    Maduraikkumaranar of Ericcilur in Konadu was the court poet of Perundirumavalavan who died at kurappali and he was not given the usual rewards given by the kings. So he scolds the king and also says those who honour the poets live in a village sorrounded by hedge of thorns eat Ragi which grows on poor soil and leaves left ungrazed by goats. Goats live in Hills that is malayaman and Ragi eating people are Hoysalas. Hoysalas called themselves the lords of the hills. He calls them mavalava(Mahavallabha denotes Karnata king).


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